An LES version ignition model, WSSIM, was developed by taking the effect of turbulence on wrinkling and stretching the flame surface into account. Next, this ignition model was combined with an innovative swept-volume algorithm based combustion model to simulate the cycle to cycle variations of ignition and combustion processes in premixed propane/air mixtures. The open source software OpenFOAM-5.0 helped to implement and validate the models.
Zhu, G. Multidimensional Modeling of Ignition and Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines Based on Level-Set Approach. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2018.