Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine

Loeper, C. P. Experimental Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2013.

Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation.

The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low fuel consumption (gross indicated fuel consumption <200 g/kWh).</p>

[1] Dec, J. E., Yang, Y., and Dronniou, N., 2011, “Boosted HCCI – Controlling Pressure- Rise Rates for Performance Improvements using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1169-1189. [2] Kalghatgi, G., Hildingsson, L., and Johansson, B., 2010, “Low NO(x) and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasolinelike Fuels,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of the Asme, 132(9), p. 9. [3] Manente, V., Zander, C.-G., Johansson, B., Tunestal, P., and Cannella, W., 2010, “An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion,” SAE International, 2010-01-2198. [4] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Reitz, R., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Durrett, R., Gopalakrishnan, V., Plazas, A., Peterson, R., and Szymkowicz, P., 2011, “Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1412-1430. [5] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Reitz, R., and Durrett, R., 2012, “Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(3), pp. 1109-1132.